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Version 9.0.12,

Windows service HOW-TO

Table of Contents

Tomcat service application

Tomcat9 is a service application for running Tomcat 9 as a Windows service.

Tomcat monitor application

Tomcat9w is a GUI application for monitoring and configuring Tomcat services.

The available command line options are:

//ES//
Edit service configuration
This is the default operation. It is called if the no option is provided but the executable is renamed to servicenameW.exe
//MS//
Monitor service
Put the icon in the system tray

Command line arguments

Each command line directive is in the form of //XX//ServiceName

The available command line options are:

//TS//
Run the service as console application
This is the default operation. It is called if the no option is provided. The ServiceName is the name of the executable without exe suffix, meaning Tomcat9
//RS//
Run the service
Called only from ServiceManager
//SS//
Stop the service
//US//
Update service parameters
//IS//
Install service
//DS//
Delete service
Stops the service if running

Command line parameters

Each command line parameter is prefixed with --. If the command line parameter is prefixed with ++ then it's value will be appended to the existing option. If the environment variable with the same name as command line parameter but prefixed with PR_ exists it will take precedence. For example:

set PR_CLASSPATH=xx.jar

is equivalent to providing

--Classpath=xx.jar

as command line parameter.

ParameterName Default Description
--Description
Service name description (maximum 1024 characters)
--DisplayName
ServiceName
Service display name
--Install
procrun.exe //RS//ServiceName
Install image
--Startup
manual
Service startup mode can be either auto or manual
--DependsOn
List of services that this service depend on. Dependent services are separated using either # or ; characters
--Environment
List of environment variables that will be provided to the service in the form key=value. They are separated using either # or ; characters. If you need to use either the # or ; character within a value then the entire value must be enclosed inside single quotes.
--User
User account used for running executable. It is used only for StartMode java or exe and enables running applications as service under account without LogonAsService privilege.
--Password
Password for user account set by --User parameter
--JavaHome
JAVA_HOME
Set a different JAVA_HOME than defined by JAVA_HOME environment variable
--Jvm
auto
Use either auto (i.e. find the JVM from the Windows registry) or specify the full path to the jvm.dll. You can use the environment variable expansion here.
--JvmOptions
-Xrs
List of options in the form of -D or -X that will be passed to the JVM. The options are separated using either # or ; characters. If you need to embed either # or ; characters, put them inside single quotes. (Not used in exe mode.)
--JvmOptions9
List of options in the form of -D or -X that will be passed to the JVM when running on Java 9 or later. The options are separated using either # or ; characters. If you need to embed either # or ; characters, put them inside single quotes. (Not used in exe mode.)
--Classpath
Set the Java classpath. (Not used in exe mode.)
--JvmMs
Initial memory pool size in MB. (Not used in exe mode.)
--JvmMx
Maximum memory pool size in MB. (Not used in exe mode.)
--JvmSs
Thread stack size in KB. (Not used in exe mode.)
--StartMode
One of jvm, Java or exe. The modes are:
  • jvm - start Java in-process. Depends on jvm.dll, see --Jvm.
  • Java - same as exe, but automatically uses the default Java executable, i.e. %JAVA_HOME%\bin\java.exe. Make sure JAVA_HOME is set correctly, or use --JavaHome to provide the correct location. If neither is set, procrun will try to find the default JDK (not JRE) from the Windows registry.
  • exe - run the image as a separate process
  • --StartImage
    Executable that will be run. Only applies to exe mode.
    --StartPath
    Working path for the start image executable.
    --StartClass
    Main
    Class that contains the startup method. Applies to the jvm and Java modes. (Not used in exe mode.)
    --StartMethod
    main
    Method name if differs then main
    --StartParams
    List of parameters that will be passed to either StartImage or StartClass. Parameters are separated using either # or ; character.
    --StopMode
    One of jvm, Java or exe. See --StartMode for further details.
    --StopImage
    Executable that will be run on Stop service signal. Only applies to exe mode.
    --StopPath
    Working path for the stop image executable. Does not apply to jvm mode.
    --StopClass
    Main
    Class that will be used on Stop service signal. Applies to the jvm and Java modes.
    --StopMethod
    main
    Method name if differs then main
    --StopParams
    List of parameters that will be passed to either StopImage or StopClass. Parameters are separated using either # or ; character.
    --StopTimeout
    No Timeout
    Defines the timeout in seconds that procrun waits for service to exit gracefully.
    --LogPath
    %SystemRoot%\System32\LogFiles\Apache
    Defines the path for logging. Creates the directory if necessary.
    --LogPrefix
    commons-daemon
    Defines the service log filename prefix. The log file is created in the LogPath directory with .YEAR-MONTH-DAY.log suffix
    --LogLevel
    Info
    Defines the logging level and can be either Error, Info, Warn or Debug. (Case insensitive).
    --StdOutput
    Redirected stdout filename. If named auto then file is created inside LogPath with the name service-stdout.YEAR-MONTH-DAY.log.
    --StdError
    Redirected stderr filename. If named auto then file is created inside LogPath with the name service-stderr.YEAR-MONTH-DAY.log.
    --PidFile
    Defines the file name for storing the running process id. Actual file is created in the LogPath directory

    Installing services

    The safest way to manually install the service is to use the provided service.bat script. Administrator privileges are required to run this script. If necessary, you can use the /user switch to specify a user to use for the installation of the service.

    NOTE: On Windows Vista or any later operating system with User Account Control (UAC) enabled you will be asked for additional privileges when 'Tomcat9.exe' is launched by the script.
    If you want to pass additional options to service installer as PR_* environment variables, you have to either configure them globally in OS, or launch the program that sets them with elevated privileges (e.g. right-click on cmd.exe and select "Run as administrator"; on Windows 8 (or later) or Windows Server 2012 (or later), you can open an elevated command prompt for the current directory from the Explorer by clicking on the "File" menu bar). See issue 56143 for details.

    Install the service named 'Tomcat9'
    C:\> service.bat install

    There is a 2nd optional parameter that lets you specify the name of the service, as displayed in Windows services.

    Install the service named 'MyService'
    C:\> service.bat install MyService

    If using tomcat9.exe, you need to use the //IS// parameter.

    Install the service named 'Tomcat9'
    C:\> tomcat9 //IS//Tomcat9 --DisplayName="Apache Tomcat 9" ^
         --Install="C:\Program Files\Tomcat\bin\tomcat9.exe" --Jvm=auto ^
         --StartMode=jvm --StopMode=jvm ^
         --StartClass=org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap --StartParams=start ^
         --StopClass=org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap --StopParams=stop

    Updating services

    To update the service parameters, you need to use the //US// parameter.

    Update the service named 'Tomcat9'
    C:\> tomcat9 //US//Tomcat9 --Description="Apache Tomcat Server - https://tomcat.apache.org/ " ^
         --Startup=auto --Classpath=%JAVA_HOME%\lib\tools.jar;%CATALINA_HOME%\bin\bootstrap.jar

    If you gave the service an optional name, you need to specify it like this:

    Update the service named 'MyService'
    C:\> tomcat9 //US//MyService --Description="Apache Tomcat Server - https://tomcat.apache.org/ " ^
         --Startup=auto --Classpath=%JAVA_HOME%\lib\tools.jar;%CATALINA_HOME%\bin\bootstrap.jar

    Removing services

    To remove the service, you need to use the //DS// parameter.
    If the service is running it will be stopped and then deleted.

    Remove the service named 'Tomcat9'
    C:\> tomcat9 //DS//Tomcat9

    If you gave the service an optional name, you need to specify it like this:

    Remove the service named 'MyService'
    C:\> tomcat9 //DS//MyService

    Debugging services

    To run the service in console mode, you need to use the //TS// parameter. The service shutdown can be initiated by pressing CTRL+C or CTRL+BREAK. If you rename the tomcat9.exe to testservice.exe then you can just execute the testservice.exe and this command mode will be executed by default.

    Run the service named 'Tomcat9' in console mode
    C:\> tomcat9 //TS//Tomcat9 [additional arguments]
    Or simply execute:
    C:\> tomcat9

    Multiple Instances

    Tomcat supports installation of multiple instances. You can have a single installation of Tomcat with multiple instances running on different IP/port combinations, or multiple Tomcat versions, each running one or more instances on different IP/ports.

    Each instance folder will need the following structure:

  • conf
  • logs
  • temp
  • webapps
  • work
  • At a minimum, conf should contain a copy of the following files from CATALINA_HOME\conf\. Any files not copied and edited, will be picked up by default from CATALINA_HOME\conf, i.e. CATALINA_BASE\conf files override defaults from CATALINA_HOME\conf.

  • server.xml
  • web.xml
  • You must edit CATALINA_BASE\conf\server.xml to specify a unique IP/port for the instance to listen on. Find the line that contains <Connector port="8080" ... and add an address attribute and/or update the port number so as to specify a unique IP/port combination.

    To install an instance, first set the CATALINA_HOME environment variable to the name of the Tomcat installation directory. Then create a second environment variable CATALINA_BASE and point this to the instance folder. Then run "service install" command specifying a service name.

    set CATALINA_HOME=c:\tomcat_9
    set CATALINA_BASE=c:\tomcat_9\instances\instance1
    service install instance1

    To modify the service settings, you can run tomcat9w //ES//instance1.

    For additional instances, create additional instance folder, update the CATALINA_BASE environment variable, and run the service install again.

    set CATALINA_BASE=c:\tomcat_9\instances\instance2
    service install instance2

    Comments

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